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Bibliography of works by and on

Giacomo Costantino Beltrami



This page presents a listing, in chronological order, of materials by and relating to Giacomo Costantino Beltrami existent within the holdings of the Biblioteca Civica di Bergamo "Angelo Mai." The list begins with a comprehensive listing of Beltrami-authored works (some of which exist only in the Fondo proper, but are included here for the sake of completeness, and one of which does not exist at Angelo Mai), and then moves on to works of a secondary nature. This latter section, rather than being comprehensive of all material, presents only those items held in the Angelo Mai collections (in periodical and book form), and is as such intended as an augmentation for those scholars undertaking primary research on some facet of the Fondo Beltrami. This resource is also designed to be used in conjunction with the partial Newspapers listing.

These listings were gathered from the new and old catalogs at Angelo Mai as well as from bibliographic references found in the course of work. Special attention for further references should be paid to:

While all of these items helped locate supplementary references, the last is especially useful for locating items not currently held by Angelo Mai. For a partial listing of items not held by Angelo Mai, select this link.

For more information on these and other pages, see the Main Menu page; guidelines for use of this tool follow.

Guide for use:

By Beltrami:

Resource Location Cat.

Beltrami, G.C. "Una Visita al Cimitero di Macerata." Componeimenti in Prosa ed in versa de Catenati recitati nella straordinaria adunanza Dei 18 Agosto ad onorare la memoria dell'illustre accademica Contessa Giulia Spada dei Medici Dama della Croce Stellata. Macerata: Stamperia Cortesi, 1820. 55-58.

Beltrami's contribution to the funereal document dedicated to Contessa Giulia Spada dei Medici; Beltrami also edited and assembled the document in its entirety.

Fondo Beltrami-4, cc.32r-33v O.

Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. Deux Mots sur les promenades de Paris a Liverpool etc. Philadelphia: I. Ashmead & Co., 1823.

Beltrami's first book recounts his observations about the state of the European nations he visited shortly after his exile. This is later expanded on and combined into his Pilgrimage (see below).

Cassaforte 1.16 V.

Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. La Découverte des sources du Mississippi et de la riviere Sanglante. Nouvelle Orleans: Benjamin Levy, 1824.

Beltrami's account, framed as a series of letters, of his travels in the United States and eventual discovery of the northernmost sources of the Mississippi river. Much of what is known of Beltrami and his travels is drawn directly from this book.

3 locations:

Salone loggia piccola 1 . 5 . 9

Cassaforte Gab. Mss, 5/7/XVII

Cassaforte 1 . 11


Beltrami, G.C. To the Public of New York, and of the United States. The Author of "The Discovery of the Sources of the Mississippi." Tarrytown, New York: Joseph Darke, 1825.

Beltrami used this short argument to defend his person and discovery against the vociferous outcry of those who disbelieved him, chiefly those belonging to Major Long's expedition. This document also available as a photocopy of the reprint from Magazine of History with Notes and Queries 160; v. 40, # 4 (1930): 5-36.

2 locations:

Fondo Beltrami-13, cc.6r-9v. (Hand-written transcription and translation in Italian)

OP 1 5106
Inv.# A 6274

(Reprint extracted from Magazine of History with Notes and Queries)

Beltrami, G.C. "New York, 31 août, 1826 (Réclamation. -- Découverte d'un ancien manuscrit mexicain.) -- Lettre écrite aux rédacteurs de la Revue Encyclopédique," Revue Encyclopédique XXXII (novembre, 1826): 511-515.

Beltrami's announcement to the Revue of his discovery of the Aztec codex, the Evangelarium epistolarium Aztecum in Mexico during his later travels. Describes the content of the manuscript and its format (printed on agave leaf); also discusses at length his political situation, his travels thus far, and his relationship with the Revue.

Mai per., Sala 30 689 O.

Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. A Pilgrimage in Europe and America, leading to the discovery of the sources of the Mississippi and Bloody river, with a description of the whole course of the former, and of the Ohio. London: Hunt and Clarke, 1828. 2 vols.

An English translation of Découverte and Deux Mots, along with some new content, regarding his peregrinations in America.

Cassaforte 1 . 13/1-2 V.

Beltrami, G.C. Beltrami's Pilgrimage and the Quarterly Review [for gratis circulation]. London: Reynell, 1828.

Beltrami's rebuttal against a "contemptible and malignant article" which vehemently criticized Pilgrimage. Beltrami uses a plethora of quotes and Latin passages -- along with testimony from well-respected officials in the Louisiana government (Ruffignac, Canonge) -- to make his case.

Fondo Beltrami-13, cc.122r-129v. O.

Beltrami, G.C. "Produzioni Patrie. Letteratura. Epitaffio al Canot di C. Beltrami." Giornale della Provincia di Bergamo n. 31. 17 Aprile 1829. p. 121.

This article is a reprint of the epitaph for Canot which appears in Découverte (in Latin).

Micr. per. 3 O.
Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. Le Mexique. Paris: Chez Delaunay, 1830. 2 vols. Cassaforte 1 . 12/1-2 V.

Beltrami, G.C. "Réclamations. Lettre de M. Beltrami à M. Jullien, de Paris, au sujet du compte rendu (par M. D-G) de son ouvrage intitulé: Le Mexique -- Paris, 28 mai 1830." Revue Encyclopédique t. XLVI (mai 1830): 511-515.

Beltrami's occasionally vitriolic response to one of his critics' review of Le Mexique and the critics re-response to Beltrami (review appears March, 1830 in Revue--see Newspapers).

Mai per., Sala 30 689 O.

Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. "Una lettera dai bagni di Usset, 23 ottobre, 1830."

Published in: Bergamum 4 (ottobre-dicembre 1955): 19-20.

Reprinted for the 100th anniversary of Beltrami's death from holdings in the Fondo Beltrami at Angelo Mai. Contains Beltrami's short, often poetic, description of his visit to the Pyrenees mountains following his adventures in the Americas, as written to his good friend Sig. Colleoni. Includes his impressions of the landscape, his personal feelings, his friendship for Colleoni, his frustration with his continued exile from his homeland, and an allusion to his anger over alleged plagiarism by other writers.

Mai per., 6 V.

Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. L'Italie et l'Europe. Paris: Chez Leurault, Delaunay, Paulia, 1834.

Beltrami's discussion and critique of the state of European independence, particularly his homeland Italy, and the political and social problems facing independence movements.

2 locations:

Cassaforte 1 . 4

Fondo Beltrami-21 (cc.4).

Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. "Carissimo Signore...à Paris; Heidelberg, 19 ottobre, 1834." 3 pp.

[Note: the format of this document is variable and it often appears bound with the following letter; location numbers are duplicated when necessary.]

In this short letter, Beltrami discusses his feelings regarding the state of Europe, especially touching on issues of self-determination of nations; the problems plaguing Italian independence; a discussion of the American political scene; the state of Mexico; and the Jesuits, among other things.

3 locations:

Sala 3 N . 8 17/1

32 (R) 4 (5)

Fondo Beltrami-5, cc.317r-318v.


Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. "Lettera a Monsieur de Monglave, segretaire perpétuel de l'Institute Historique a Paris; Heidelberg, 17 febbraio, 1836."

[Note: the format of this document is variable and it often appears bound with the preceding letter; location numbers are duplicated when necessary.]

A long letter addressing a number of diferent topics including: a plea that he not be forgotten for his journeys in America; alleged plagiarism (presumably by Cooper) of his writings; discussions about his travels and things he found and saw. In it he also compares himself, to an extent, with Columbus and other Italian explorers and complains against those who "conspire" against his works.

4 locations:

Sala 2º loggia F, 8, 26 (11/1-3)

Sala 3 N . 8 17/2

32 (R) 4 (5)

Fondo Beltrami-6, cc.3r-14v.


Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. La scoperta delle sorgenti del Mississippi. [1º traduzione Italiana di Luciano Gallina]. Bergamo: Edizioni Documenti Lombardi--Industrie Grafiche Cattaneo, 1955.

This is the first Italian translation of Découverte; and contains the same translation as Gallina's book below, G. C. Beltrami alle sorgenti del Mississippi, as well as a short introduction that differs somewhat from the later editions; also contains a number of black and white plates of the Raccolta Beltrami and some of the images of Beltrami himself.

2 locations:

Cass. 5 C . 2 4
(inv.# 689/1956)

Sala 19 Z . 9 10
(inv.# 451342)


Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. Giacomo Costantino Beltrami alle sorgenti del Mississippi. Gallina, Luciano [editor and translator]. Novara: Istituto Geografico de Agostini, 1965. [also 1975].

The same translation as the above with an expanded introductory section and fewer plates and images from the Beltrami collection proper.

2 locations:

Sala 3 T . 7 9
(inv.# 535604)

Sala 3 T . 7 8 [1975]
(inv.# 535603)



Beltrami, Giacomo Costantino. Giacomo Costantino Beltrami et ses correspondents Français. A cura di Martina Carrara e Joëlle Michelli. Bergamo: Istituto Universitario di Bergamo, 1985.

This volume contains all of Beltrami's letters (taken from the Fondo Beltrami) to and from six French correspondents: the Comtesse d'Albany, Chateaubriand, and four various "other" correspondents. All letters are reprinted with copious helpful annotations regarding relationships, important names and dates, and background information. Also contains helpful bibliographies on Beltrami, the Comtesse d'Albany, and Chateaubriand.

Sala G 1 2816
(inv.# 599636)

Beltrami, G.C. L'Italie, Ossia scoperte fatte dagli Italiani nelle scienze, nelle arti, ecc. Lettera di Beltrami ad un amico. Lugano: Ruggia, 1834.

This is the Italian translation of L'Italie et l'Europe.

No Angelo Mai holdings of this item O.


On Beltrami:

Resource Location Cat.

"Scoperta del viaggiatore Beltrami." Annali Universali di Statistica (12 maggio, 1827): 186.

Announcement of Beltrami's "other find," the aztec "Evangelarium" printed on papyrus (or more appropriately, agave leaf) "translated from Montezuma into the Mexican language" (186; see below Biondelli, 1888 for the Evangelarium).

Mai per., Sala 30 1257/1 O.

Rosa, Gabriele. Della vita e degli scritti di Costantino Beltrami da Bergamo, scopritore delle fonti del Mississippi. Bergamo: Pagnoncelli, 1861.

Originally printed in the Gazzetta Veneta (20 and 27 Aprile, 1856), Rosa explores Beltrami's discoveries, framing the investigation in the mass emigrations from Italy at the end of the 1800s. Gives some information about the lives of Beltrami's siblings (the only resource that seems to do so); illustrates the population explosion going on in the U.S. at the time and the remoteness of the territory Beltrami explored; speaks at some length about the various groups of Native Americans encountered, and their customs and ways of life; discusses the voyage in Mexico touching on the origins of the Mexican people, their cultural manifestations, the Evangelarium printed on agave leaf and its cultural and linguistic importance; and briefly Beltrami's publishing history.

3 locations:

op. II 9217

6 R 8 (5)

6 R 8 (1)


Camozzi-Vertova, G.B., Gabriele Rosa, Conte Pietro Moroni and G.C. Beltrami. Notizie e lettere pubblicate per cura del municipio del Bergamo e dedicata all Società Storica di Minnesota. Bergamo: Pagnoncelli, 1865.

[Note: this document is oddly bound together with a number of other unrelated documents; it appears approximately one quarter of the way into the entire bound volume.]

This booklet, assembled by the city of Bergamo and presented to the government of Minnesota, played a large role in the official recognition of Beltrami in that state and the subsequent naming of the county. It contains five things: 1) A short introduction (often listed as a missing or "cited in" reference in other bibliographies) by the mayor of Bergamo, G.B. Camozzi-Vertova (p. 3-6 [sic]); 2) An article by G. Rosa entitled "Viaggi e scoperte" (p. 1-40) which focuses most heavily on his Missisippi and Mexican travels, the Aztec codice (the Evangelarium), and Beltrami's theories on the origins of the Mexican people; 3) Conte Pietro Moroni's "De viaggi e degli scritti di Costantino Beltrami di Bergamo: Dissertazione letto all'Ateneo di Bergamo" (p. 41-91), a discussion of his travels and his writings; 4) Beltrami's own "Lettere di Chateaubriand, Lafayette, Lafitte, Jullien, Rossignac, Davis, Robertson, Camonge a Costantino Beltrami" (p. 93-113), which reprints a variety of letters on numerous subjects from the Fondo Beltrami; and 5) Beltrami's "Lettera di Costantino Beltrami al Sig. de Monglave" (115-134), which bemoans his troubles and discusses his work and writings. Interesting for its information, but also as a document that played an integral part in the "revindication" of Beltrami's role in history.

4 locations:

Salone cassap VI E, 1, 21 (2)

Sala II Q 9/retro, 13

Salone loggia K 6 36/ 1/1

28 R 10 (12)


Capsoni, Gio. "Costantino Beltrami e la scoperta delle sorgenti del Mississippi." Annali Universale di Statistica. Milano (Luglio, 1869): 42-48.

Announcement by Capsoni of the U.S. government's decision to recognize Beltrami achievement, followed by a short discussion of the history of attempts at finding the "true source" and Beltrami's part in that history. Also includes a brief discussion of the common argument between the validity of westernmost vs. northernmost sources.

2 locations:

Mai per., Sala 30 160/3

Sala 2º T, 9/retro, 13 (18) [extracted from the Annali.]


Negri, G. "Relazione della seduta accademica del 4 dic.,1868." Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, fasc. 2 (1869): 30-31.

Part of an overview of the years proceedings where Negri affirms, "without fear of error, the sources of the Mississippi were discovered by Beltrami in 1823" (30). Also mentions the naming of the county in 1866 [sic].

Mai per., Sala 23 26 O.

Branca, Gaetano. "I viaggiatori italiani del nostro secolo." Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, fasc. 2 (1869): 251-272.

An interesting article with a definitively geographical slant. Coverage of Beltrami runs from p.255-269, with interesting quotes from contemporaneous newspapers criticizing his find and/or methods (Courrier Louisiansis and the London Monthly Review--see Newspapers); defends somewhat Beltrami's findings and glosses the uproar created. Mentions the part played by Beltrami in the Evangelarium Epistolarium Aztecum.

Mai per., Sala 23 26 O.

D.E. "Notizie della contea Beltrami nel Minnesota." Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, fasc. 3 (1869): 484-485.

Announcement of naming of Beltrami county in Minnesota with interesting early map of the state, and reproduction of the decree complete with longitudinal boundaries.

Mai per., Sala 23 26 O.

Mantovani, Gaetano. "Gabinetto di geografia e collezione etnografia." Annali del istituto tecnico Vittorio Emanuele II in Bergamo 1 (1879-1880): 93.

A short description of the Raccolta Beltrami of Native American artifacts (now housed in the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali "Enrico Caffi") as well as other assembled Native American collections.

Mai per., Sala 30 1739 O.

Pennesi, Giuseppe. Costantino Beltrami all ricerca delle sorgenti del Mississippi--conferma all Società Geografia Italia, il 18 aprile, 1886. Rome: Società Geografia Italia, 1886.

A detailed discussion of only his trip in America, given alongside a portrait of the state of U.S. exploration at the time. Focuses especially on Beltrami's contributions to geographic knowledge of the Mississippi region; the flora, fauna and inhabitants; the placenames given; and the general history of exploration and controversy over the "true source." Pennesi makes a case for Beltrami's claim to the discovery, highlighting the vindication of the Minnesota government in its naming of the county.

Sala IIº loggia B, 7, 8 (5) V.

Biondelli, Bernardino [editor]. Evangelarium epistolarium et lectionarium Aztecarum. Milano, 1888.

In Latin, Spanish and French. Beltrami (here given as "Julius Caesar Beltrami") and his Le Mexique are mentioned copiously in the preface which presumably tells the story of Beltrami's discovery of the codice in Mexico and its subsequent journey to Italy (along with much other introductory matter). The remainder is devoted to a reprinting of the codice (with one facsimile page) which presents the stories of the evangelists and apostles translated into the Aztec language onto Agave leaf papyrus. The codice was created in Mexico under the guidance of the Catholic priest Sahagun in 1529 during the time of Cortez, and as such represents one of the only surviving examples of written Aztec in existence. Beltrami considered it possibly a more significant find than the headwaters of the Mississippi.

Sala II E, 6, 1 O.

Ricchieri, G. "Relazione sul congresso internazionale di geografia di Berna." Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, fasc. 4 (1891): 844.

Announcement of the ongoing controversy over the "true source" of the Mississippi and whether it should be attributed to Beltrami.

Mai per., Sala 23 26 O.

Ricchieri, G. La geografia per tutti. (16 feb., 1892). p. 43-44.

A rebuttal against critics who insisted that Beltrami's find had no merit as the "true source"; argues that, with a river of this magnitude, it would be prudent to consider all possible sources--be they northernmost or westernmost--as sources of the river.

Mai per., Sala 30 22 O.

Pennesi, Giuseppe. La geografia per tutti. (31 mar., 1892). p. 81-83.

From the same volume as Ricchieri's above article. A vibrant illustration of the furor that ensued over Beltrami's claim to the discovery of the source of the Mississippi, Pennesi asserts that a conspiracy against Beltrami is under way that encompasses the Geographic Congress of Bern, and rooted in motives political and anti-Italian.

Mai per., Sala 30 22  

Masi Costanzi, Eugenia. Giacomo Costantino Beltrami e le sue esplorazioni in America. Firenze: Barbera, 1902.

One of the classic writings on Beltrami, and like other early works on the subject, almost a primary document in its own right. Copiously footnooted, and drawing heavily on correspondence from the Fondo Beltrami at Angelo Mai, this work is divided into five sections (and a conclusion): 1) a biography which particularly focuses on his explorations, though is somewhat abbreviated regarding the earlier events in his life; 2) "Opere," which explores his published works, some of the difficulties and problems he endured in their creation and dissemination, the general findings presented therein, and the reactions to them in contemporaneous magazines and reviews; 3) an examination of his geographical work, including the question of the validity of his discovery, and a discussion of the other explorers of the era and area; 4) "La fortuna di GCB", which discusses the public reception of his findings, the "injustice" suffered by Beltrami at the hands of his detractors, and the posthumous battle waged for his recognition in Minnesota (via Beltrami county and island) at the behest of the city of Bergamo; and finally 5) "Le sorgenti del rio Panuco" which tries to demonstrate Beltrami's ongoing knack for river exploration, glossing his observations of the altoplano of central Mexico and his discovery of the source of the Panuco river. Though this work is certainly in many ways an homage to all things Beltrami, the footnotes and the concentration on contemporaneous journalistic resources make it well worth the effort; these two facets alone would no doubt yield countless clues to the intrepid and detail-minded.

3 locations:

Sala 2º P VI 40

B.S.Q. (sala 24) F . 5 . 15

Sala 3º C, 4 1 (2)


Bonaschi, Alberto. "Una gloria Italiana dimenticata, Costantino Beltrami, scopritore delle sorgenti del Mississippi." La Follia di New York anno XXII, no. 11 (11 ottobre, 1914): 4.

Primarily about Beltrami's adventures in the U.S., this article, notwithstanding numerous seemingly errant facts, is quite useful. The curious nature of the publication-published in New York, but entirely in Italian-gives the article a point of view that leads to some interesting conclusions, including that Beltrami's obscuration as a discoverer is in large part a plot by the press and others in America who refused to believe that an Italian could make this discovery (indeed, asserting that the Philadelphia National Gazette even went so far as to buy up and hide 400 copies of his book so they couldn't be read). Also contains some interesting tidbits about Beltrami's traveling companions, and a good list of newspaper coverage given in the U.S. and abroad.

2 locations:

Mai per., Sala 28 276/3

Sala 2º Q 9, 9 (14) [extracted from La Follia]


Mantovani, Gaetano. Commemorazione di Giacomo Costantino Beltrami. Lettura nella pubblica seduta sul 24 giugno, 1911, L'Ateneo di Scienza, Letteratura, ed Arte, Bergamo. Bergamo: Arte Grafiche, 1915.

From a commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of Beltrami's death. Mantovani expands on his life, his travels and the horrors of travel in a land "infested with buffalo, bears, wolves and ferocious tribes of red-skins" (p. 6). Though often-dated, this piece does contain some very interesting information, including the link to the English phrase "the Julian sources of the Mississippi" (the Beltrami-named Lago di Giulia), a brief (and possibly inaccurate; see the Biography) day-to-day accounting of his travels, a list of newspapers and issue dates--both for and against Beltrami--that carried articles regarding his discovery, a section detailing his battles with alleged plagiarism by other writers, among them James Fenimore Cooper, and lastly a discussion of the wrangling that led to his eventual recognition by the state of Minnesota.

4 locations:

Sala 3º E, 7, 3 (15)

Sala 3º E, 7, 3 (16)

Salone piccola 8, 7, 4 (20)

Mai per., 7-8 [in Atti dell'Ateneo XXIII, 1913-1914. pp. 1-16]


Revelli, Paolo/Congresso Internazionale degli Americanisti (Roma/Genova, 23 settembre-5 ottobre, 1926). Terre d'America e archivi d'Italia (con 80 illustrazione e 3 tavole fouri testo). Milano: Treves, 1926. 39-40, 139, 168.

Revelli's book presents a short introduction to the history of Italian exploration in the new world, followed by a long listing of Italian archival holdings related to these explorations, and their locations, contents, etc. On page 80-81, Angelo Mai's Beltrami holdings are glossed quickly, with a concentration on those letters with particular significance to his travels. Also mentions other collections of Beltrami manuscripts, including those (at the time) in the archives of the Società Dante Alighieri in Rome (page 168), that were apparently transferred, in perpetuity, from the Filottrano archives (page 139) in 1926 (though later transferred back).

Sala 3 . D . 26/1-2 V.

"La Contea Beltrami del Minnesota." Bolletino della Civica Biblioteca di Bergamo, anno XX, 1926. p. 197.

An announcement of the above, Paolo Revelli's, Terre d'America e archivi d'Italia, as well as a list of other resources at Angelo Mai that pertain to the formation of Beltrami County (now collocated with the rest of the Fondo Beltrami).

Mai per., 6 V.

Franzi, Tullia. "Bergamaschi per il mondo: Alle sorgenti del Mississippi." Rivista di Bergamo (ottobre 1926): 3-8.

Provides biographical sketch, including conspirator controversy. Interestingly relates Beltrami's experiences among the Native Americans in northern Minnesota during his travels, and particularly, the strange reception he often reported (as given in his texts). Briefly addresses the negative reception of his book by the public, the US military (and Major Long), and the church's official cosmological view of Beltrami as a heretic. Contains a number of engravings of Native American objects, probably from the Raccolta Beltrami.

Mai per., 1 V.

Franzi, Tullia. "Un Carteggio inedito della Contessa d'Albany." Revista d'Italia anno XXX, fasc. XII (15 dicembre, 1927): 590-603.

Recounts the years of correspondence between Beltrami and the Contessa d'Albany, with particular emphasis on the time period of the Carbonari controversy. Franzi also explores the complicated relationship presented in the letters between Beltrami and-friend or lover?-Giulia Spada dei Medici, and the supposed effect of this relationship on Albany. Draws on twenty-five letters now housed at Angelo Mai in the Fondo Beltrami.

Mai per., Sala 30 465



Ghisleri, Arcangelo. "La Passione dell'esule nei viaggi di Giacomo Costantino Beltrami." Rivista di Bergamo (dicembre 1928): 326.

Begins with a short biographical note. Discusses the controversy that led Beltrami into exile, his decision to travel to the United States, his French correspondents with the aid of whom this decision was made, and finally, his patriotic passion for his homeland. Ends with a plea that Beltrami be considered alongside the other illustrious exiles of Italian history. Contains a reproduction of the frontispiece from Pilgrimage….

2 locations:

Mai per., 1

Sala IIº loggia T, 6, 10(15) [extracted from Revista, a.k.a. Bergomum during this time; autographed copy.]


Bertacchi, Cosimo. Geografi ed esploratori italiani contemporanei. Milano: De Agostini, 1929. 31-34.

Short description of his travels in America mostly. The focus here, as might be expected, is on the geographical manifestations of Beltrami's find; Bertacchi discusses the existence of maps with Beltrami county represented and the mutations of placenames visited and/or named by Beltrami.

Sala II F, 6, 6



Tofanelli, Ferruchio. "Le Sorgenti del Mississippi." Primato del genio italiano: Rivendicazioni. Milano: Istituto Editoria Nazionale, ca. 1930. p. 83-88.

Steeped in Fascist rhetoric and dedicated "A S.E. Benito Mussolini", this small work attempts to reclaim all the Italian inventions and discoveries attributed wrongly to others, from Meucci's telephone, to Colombo's electric light, to, you guessed it, Beltrami's Mississippi headwaters. Very short description of his journey that lingers on the persecution following the publication of Découverte and, ironically, his lifelong desire for a free Italy.

Sala II loggia L, 6, 29 V.

Schiavo, Giovanni. "With Beltrami at the Headwaters of the Mississippi Water." Columbus. A Collection of Historical Facts. Published by the Columbus Memorial Association of Minnesota upon the Occasion of the Dedication of the Minnesota Monument to Christopher Columbus, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1931. 42-46.

A quick synopsis of Beltrami's life, and a rather long discussion as to the veracity of his discovery, the arguments revolving, as usual around the issue of northermost sources vs. westernmost sources. Taken from an equally interesting booklet on the dedication of the Columbus monuments in St. Paul; nice context for the "reclamation" of Beltrami's character in the 30s through the 50s. Also contains a notice regarding the transferral of a copy of Scuri's painting to the Minnesota Historical Society. In English.

2 locations:

Sala 2 loggia T, 6, 22 (2)

Fondo Beltrami-17, cc.1r-v.


Lami, Adriano. Giacomo Costantino Beltrami e la scoperto della sorgenti del Mississippi. Torino: Paravia, 1931.

One of the classic biographies of Beltrami, which draws heavily on another--that of Masi--Lami's work fulfills its goal of being an "even and easy" introduction which touches on the major points of Beltrami's life (see the biography for these points). Little analysis, but fairly thorough. Chapter 1: "L'Esule" (first part of his life, including travels in Europe); Chapter 2: "Verso il nuovo mondo" (his voyage to America); Chapter 3: "Sulle rive dell'Ohio" (his travels up the Ohio river, including his fateful meeting with Tagliaferro); Chapter 4: "In mezzo ai selvaggi" (life on the Mississippi, at the forts, and in small excursions); Chapter 5: "Verso l'ignoto" (the travel up the Mississippi); Chapter 6: "Verso la gloria" (Beltrami goes it alone, finds Lake Giulia); Chapter 7: "Lungo il Mississippi inesplorato" (further explorations in the region and finally back to New Orleans); Chapter 8: "Attraverso il Messico" (Mexican leg of his trip); Chapter 9: "Il ritorno dell'esule" (controversy over his writings, return to Europe and end of his life); Conclusione (reprints the letter to Signor di Monglave). Contains a fold-out map and numerous reproductions of the Raccolta Beltrami in the Caffi museum.

3 locations:

Cassapanca Vº H, 1, 9

Cassapanca Vº H, 1, 10

Sala 40 R5 . 81

V.; N.

M.D. "Le onoranze Americane a Costantino Beltrami." Rivista di Bergamo, 1932. p. 44.

Recounts the celebration in St. Paul Minnesota honoring Beltrami (alongside Columbus) and the subsequent naming of Beltrami county in northern Minnesota. Muses that the new spirit which animates fascist Italy will come to see Beltrami's importance at last. Includes a small reproduction of Enrico Scuri's oil painting in the Accademia Carrara.

Mai per., 1 V.

Fabietti, Ettore. "Una Gloria Italiana rivendicata. G. Costantino Beltrami." Le Vie d'Italia e dell'America Latina 38 (1 marzo, 1932): 245-253.

As the title suggests, another of the "reclamations" of Beltrami that became so popular (not coincidentally) during the rise of Fascism in Italy. Focuses almost entirely on his voyage in America, and reprints a smattering of the commonly presented facsimiles and photos of the Raccolta Beltrami at the Caffi.

Salone loggia R 4, 29 (8) V.

Franzi, Tullia. "Nella raccolta transatlantica di Costantino Beltrami, mosaici di piume." Revista di Bergamo (gennaio, 1937): 2-4.

Discusses Beltrami's journey in Mexico-especially to the region of 'Taraschi'-while also touching on some of the "most beautiful and flowery legends" of the region, and their description of a paradise covered, mosaic-like, in various treasures. Then draws a parallel to Beltrami's own description of two mosaics made of feathers which he encountered in Mexico that he makes note of in his Le Mexique. Sees this as a testament of sorts to Beltrami's sensitivity to his surroundings and his ability to understand Mexican culture.

Mai per., 1 O.

Pasquali, Ismaele. "Giacomo Costantino Beltrami" Revista di Bergamo (maggio/giugno, 1950): 29-30.

Contains the usual biographical sketch, as well as a fairly in-depth discussion of the controversy with the Carbonari. Some information about his European peregrinations. Quite laudatory in tone and seemingly encapsulated from earlier articles in Revista.

Mai per., 1 O.

Istituenda Fondazione Beltrami. Opera Omnia. Per initiativa della pro-Bergamo e della istituenda fondazione Beltrami. Milano: Editrice "La Via" Grandi Edizioni, 1954

This was an initiative undertaken around 1954 to publish a limited edition run of all of Beltrami's works in seven volumes by the above organizations. All that remains of this undertaking, however, is a small brochure describing it as well as providing some scant information on Beltrami. The seven volumes would have contained translations of both Pilgrimage and Le Mexique in three volumes each, along with a last volume of "Miscellanea" comprised of letters and assorted writings. Contains one large fold-out page with black and white reproductions of some documents from the Fondo Beltrami.

Salone loggia T . 6 53 (14) V.

Braghieri Giacomini, Wally. Giacomo Costantino Beltrami: Pellegrino alle sorgenti del Mississippi. Bergamo: Conti, 1955.

As in Braghieri's article below, the emphasis here is on placing Beltrami's voyage through America in the context of the other explorers of his day. This is a rigorously researched and extremely thorough analysis of the reality of Beltrami's explorations and their bearing on, and reaction to, the explorations of Clark, Schoolcraft and Thompson (to name but a few). Discusses in detail the aftermath and balcklash against Beltrami, and provides invaluable historical background on non-Beltrami explorations before and after. Most important in this work is the voluminous bibliography (which has been herein used to provide many of those items not available at Angelo Mai), and an incomplete listing of the documents contained in the Fondo Beltrami. Also contains numerous maps and other reproductions.

4 locations:

Pacchiani 1278
(inv. # 457508)

Sala 2 F . 8retro 3

Sala 24 A . 6 14
(inv. # 445616)

Sala 2 Loggia V . 7 7


Ronchi, U. "Il bergamasco C. Beltrami e la scoperta delle sorgenti del Mississippi." Bergamo--Rassegna Mensile della Cameradi Commercio (gen-feb 1955): 16-19.

Printed to coincide with the 100th anniversary of Beltrami's death, with a brief description of commemorative events of the celebration. Focuses mostly on travels, a brief gloss of his writings and publication troubles, and a discussion of the alleged Cooper plagiarism, including an assertion that Cooper had already been accused of plagiarizing Walter Scott in his novels. Bemoans the lack of italian translations, but mentions Gallina's new translation as a step in the right direction.

Mai per., 10 O.

Ronchi, U. "G.C. Beltrami." Realta Nuova (ott., 1955): 885.

This article, published under the auspices of the Rotary club of Bergamo, is an almost exact reproduction of Ronchi's above article.

Mai per., Sala 23 105 O.

Braghieri Giacomini, Wally. "Valore scientifico dell'impresa di Giacomo Costantino Beltrami." Bergamo--Rassegna Mensile della Cameradi Commercio 10 (ottobre, 1955): 16-20.

Companion piece to Braghieri Giacomini's above book, this short work places Beltrami in the context of the other explorers, both before and after, of the Mississippi region. Discusses the reality of Beltrami's discovery, pointing out that though he did not actually discover the major source of the Mississippi (but rather a group of springs that are the northernmost feeders)-and that the area of his discovery had already been explored to large extent by the English explorer David Thompson-we should instead concentrate on his importance as a historical figure and the enduring value of his written works.

Mai per., 10 V.

Angelini, Luigi. "Un magistrato esploratore: Costantino Beltrami alle sorgenti del Mississippi." La Martinella di Milano, vol. X, fasc ix, (settembre, 1956): 484-491.

Recounts a basic version of Beltrami's early history, positing that, due to his independence-minded thinking, he was motivated for the most part by a desire to see a country that had only recently obtained its own independence. On page 486 Angelini begins a discussion of some of the various works available on Beltrami, focusing especially on Gallina's 1955 translation of Découverte--which he briefly glosses letter by letter--and Braghieri-Giacomini's recent work (noted above). In this latter case, Angelini feels compelled to add that (as Braghieri-Giacomini points out), though Beltrami didn't actually discover the source of the Mississippi, he is still recognized as a discoverer by some official institutions, among them, the state of Minnesota. Includes engravings of objects in the Raccolta Beltrami, a reproduction of Scuri's portrait, and the map from Pilgrimage....

2 locations:

Mai per., Sala 23 183

sala 2 I . 9retro 24 (21)
(inv.# 547/1957)
[extracted from Martinella...]


Bonasera, F. "G.C. Beltrami, un esploratore alle sorgenti del Mississippi." L'Universo fasc. XXXVII (1957): 101-110.

After a short discussion of his early years, recounts Beltrami's voyages in clear and precise manner--drawing mostly on E. Masi and Pennesi--including up the Mississippi and through Mexico. Little regarding his works and publishing history here. Contains two maps, one of which interestingly illustrates population density at time of Beltrami's exploration.

Sala 2 T. 6 29(12)
inv.# 637/1957)

Della Peruta, Franco. "Note e documenti per una storia delle idee sociali in Italia (1830-49)." Annali Istituto Giangiacomo Fetrinelli anno III (1960): 531-561.

This article explores "the diffusion of the ideas of Saint-Simon and Fourier in Italy between 1830 and 1849" (561) and the circulation of their theories of utopist socialism (as it pertained to ideals of self-rule and the coming Risorgimento) by examining numerous letters from the Fonds Enfantin of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal (Paris), penned by several prominent exiles of the day. Beltrami's very short letter of 1831/2, to Sig. Enfantin (a proponent of Saint-Simon's thinking), expresses his dedication to the "morals and justice" of the Saint-Simonian school. This article tantalizingly hints that there may be other pieces preserved in the Fonds Enfantin, but we are left to wonder.

Mai per., Sala 23 468 O.

Zanetti, Umberto. "Costantino Beltrami." Bergamo Minima (marzo, 1962): 39.

A very basic outline of Beltrami, with little new information. Curiously makes no mention of the charges that drove him into exile, opting instead for the 'spirit of adventure' angle.

Mai per., Sala 30 336 V.

Anon. "Località Statunitensi di interesse dello scopritore." Minnesota: [information packet and map], 1969.

A driving map of Minnesota including the Beltrami County area, as well as an informational packet from (presumably) the Bemidji, Minnesota (county seat of Beltrami County) tourist office or historical society. Some salient information about Fort Snelling and the general history of the region (including about Beltrami's cohorts, Long and Tagliaferro), though only a paragraph about its namesake. Also includes a postcard and a brochure of 1969 Fort Snelling.

Op. I 2118 V.

Bruno Lauro, Maria. "Giacomo Costantino Beltrami: un bergamasco tra gli esploratori del Mississippi." La geografie nelle scuole anno XIX, no. 5 (1974): 161-170.

Written for the 150th anniversary of Beltrami's discovery, this quick and easy read places Beltrami in the context of the other explorers of the region (similar to Braghieri-Giacomini's approach). After a detailed synopsis of his finds--including helpful place names for the multitude of lakes and rivers, in both Italian and English--this article covers, fairly in-depth, the controversy surrounding these discoveries, dwelling especially on the comments regarding his nationality, and his ignorance of scientific method in his travels. Also contains a good chronology of the literary and epistolary events (by Rosa, Masi, and Pennesi, among others) that would serve to partially reclaim his fame as an explorer with the dedication of Beltrami County, Minnesota, in 1868.

Mai per., Sala 30 1492 V.

Zavatti, S. "Ricordo di G.C. Beltrami." Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana fasc. 10-12 (1979): 688-689.

Announcement of Beltrami exhibit in Filottrano in 1979.

Mai per., Sala 23 26/5 O.

Luchetti, Glauco, Dante Cecchi, and Francesco Bonasera. Giacomo Costantino Beltrami, scopritore delle sorgenti del Mississippi (2º centenario della nascita). Filottrano: Coll. Deputazione di storia per le Marche, Studi e testi, 12. 1981.

This helpful little book contains four pieces on different topics concerning Beltrami. The first, "G.C. Beltrami ed il suo archivio in Filottrano" (13-32)--by the general editor of the volume, and overseer of all things Beltrami in Filottrano, Glauco Luchetti--focuses first of all on presenting the events that cemented him to the Filottrano region, including his friendship with Spada-Medici and his formation of the Azienda Agricola Beltrami. The second part of the article consists of an abbreviated finding aid of documents held in the Filottrano archives, including autographed manuscripts (of Le Mexique in particular), documents from the Azienda, and correspondence from the time period of his trials and his later retiring years. The second article, Dante Cecchi's "Un esploratore e...la pubblica amministrazione" (33-71), uses these documents to explore the charges against him that would lead him into exile, focusing especially on his correspondence with Cardinal Consalvi, Giulia Spada dei Medici and Louise d'Albany (who sprang to his aid), and the various governing bodies of the day. It also reprints the documents that contain the accusations and correspondence regarding the lingering problems upon his return to Filottrano. The third article, Fracesco Bonasera's "L'Opera geografica di G.C. Beltrami" (73-81), focuses only on his geographical works, presenting--alongside a short history of his travels--a list of collections that hold objects or documents relating to his scientific and geographic work, including those in Angelo Mai, the Caffi, the Raccolta dell'Ing. Luchetti at Filottrano, and the Museo Storico Marchigiano del Risorgimento in Macerata. The last document is a lengthy and very helpful bibliography, compiled by Luchetti, from which many of the alternate holdings (those not held by Angelo Mai) in this bibliography have been gathered. A very useful companion to this website.

Sala 2 F . 7 32 N.

Rusich, Luciano G. "Esuli dai moti carbonari del 1820-1821 nel Messico." Rassegna storica del Risorgimento anno LXXI, fasc. IV (ottobre-dicembre 1984): 419-437.

Rusich begins by stating that the Risorgimento and the wars for Latin American independence were born from common ground, and that Beltrami's visit to Mexico, though still mostly concerned with satisfying his scholarly and cultural curiosity, was not one of an accidental tourist. He posits that Beltrami, like the numerous other Carbonari who fled to Mexico, found there a chance to defend (or at least observe) independence and liberty unfortunately untenable in the old world. Rusich also lauds Beltrami for his minute, firsthand accounting of the political players and structures in Mexico in its first years of independence, and his validation of the history of the pre-columbian population as a key component in a liberated Mexico, both of which make Le Mexique an invaluable historical document.

Mai per., Sala 23 213



Agazzi, Aldo. "Torquato Tasso con Costantino Beltrami alle sorgenti del Mississippi." Atti dell'Ateneo di scienza, lettere ed arti di Bergamo 47 (1986/1987): 411-418.

Agazzi demonstrates that Beltrami, alongside his judicial and exploration aspirations, was also a man of literature and poetry, well-versed in, among others, the poetry of fellow bergamascan Torquato Tasso. He cites a passage in Beltrami's La scoperta delle sorgenti del Mississippi where, upon finding and naming "Lake Giulia"-the presumed source of the Mississippi-his 'spontaneous' poem to its namesake, the Countess d' Medici, begins with two lines of Tasso's written on the virtues and beauty of his own Medici patron, Leonore.

2 locations:

Mai per., 9

Sala Tassi . L 2 24 [extracted from Atti…]
(inv. # 614788)


Maconi, Vittorio. "L'Antropologia di Giacomo Costantino Beltrami." Atti dell'Ateneo di scienza, lettere ed arti di Bergamo 47 (1986/1987): 401-410.

Maconi wants to view Beltrami in the context of modern notions of anthropology and ethnography, and as someone who had an abiding desire to live among the Native Americans and respect their culture and ways of living. Beltrami's desire for a more "direct" ethnology than was common at the time, produces a work that, though flawed, provides a relatively balanced look at Native American culture of the region.

Mai per., 9 N.

Maconi, Vittorio. "Beltrami e L'Etnologia." Rivista del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali "Enrico Caffi" 11 (1987): 3-8.

For the most part, a restatement of the above article. Maconi wants primarily to study the method of Beltrami's approach to indigenous cultures and the justice that he gave them in his proto-ethnography.

2 locations:

Mai per., Sala 23 978

Sala G 4 1073 [extracted from Rivista...]



Vigorelli, Leonardo [a cura di]. "Gli oggetti indiani raccolti da Giacomo Costantino Beltrami: un catalogo." Rivista del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali "Enrico Caffi" 11 (1987): 9-133.

[From an exposition at the Lorenzelli Gallery in Milan, June/July, 1987].

A comprehensive catalog of all of the Native American objects Beltrami obtained during his travels, and exhibited in the Lorenzelli gallery in Milan in 1987 (now housed in the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali "Enrico Caffi"). Contains black and white photographs, descriptions, and bibliographic and provenance information for all of the objects, as well as numeous informative maps and diagrams.

2 locations:

Mai per., Sala 23 978

Sala G 4 1073 [extracted from Rivista...]


Speranza, Allesandra. "Bibliografia." Rivista del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali "Enrico Caffi" 11 (1987): 135-138.

Highly abridged bibliography of sources by and about Beltrami, with an emphasis on his reflections on and descriptions of Native American culture and the various rituals he witnessed. Also contains some helpful annotations to the critical works, and an abbreviated list of documents in the Fondo Beltrami at Angelo Mai.

2 locations:

Mai per., Sala 23 978

Sala G 4 1073 [extracted from Rivista...]


Marchesi, Angelo. "Carlo Cattaneo e il bergamasco Costantino Beltrami: vicende di un interessante rapporto culturale." Atti dell'Ateneo di scienza, lettere ed arti di Bergamo 48 (1987/1988): 493-505.

Explains the intersection between Carlo Cattaneo's Gli Antichi Messicani and Beltrami's Le Mexique, as filtered through the work of Cattaneo's associate Bernardino Biondelli. Particular emphasis is given to their similar non-"Eurocentric" approach to ancient Mexican culture, their insistence on the value of direct observation in their accounts, and their desire to create total ethnologies of the subject. A good pairing with Maconi's articles above.

Mai per., 9 N.

Cattaneo, Barbara. "Le Mexique" di Giacomo Costantino Beltrami: le lettere dall'America di un "pelerin solitaire," 1830. [tesi di laurea]. Bergamo: istituto universitario di Bergamo, faccoltà di lingue e letterature straniere, 1990.

As in her article below, Cattaneo examines Beltrami's works--especially Le Mexique--from a contextual point of view, examining his relationships to the people he knew and his capacity to understand the cultural demands of his time. After an interesting biographical interpretation in which Cattaneo argues for, among other things, the importance of romanticized literary representations like Defoe's Crusoe as well as the revolutionary fervor of Stendahl on Beltrami, she examines Le Mexique in depth. In chapter two, she discusses Beltrami from a socio-political context, examining especially his decision to publish his work in the politically-charged Paris of 1830, then moving on to an examination of the ways in which his correspondence with French contemporaries yields new information and understandings about his complex relationship with his time and place. Also discusses the constant tension in his works between poetic literature and science; the dichotomy between originality and plagiarism, both in his own work and those who were influenced by it; and his difficulty writing for both the well-read public as well as specialists in his adopted fields of botany and geography. In chapter three, Cattaneo's critique blends structural examinations of the epistolary form and its effect on reading publics, investigating the well-noted problems and benefits of this particular literary strategy. Contains an extensive bibliography and notes particularly heavy on French materials. The article below draws extensively on this tesi, but both are worth the effort

Sala 34 W 8 14 N.

Luchetti, Glauco. "La villa di Giacomo Costantino Beltrami ad Heidelberg." Bergomum 86:3-4 (1991): 37-51.

Uses documents in the Filottrano archives as well as on-site research in Heidelberg, Germany, to reconstruct the oft-forgotten period of Beltrami's life, following his travels in the new world and Europe thereafter, prior to his return to Italy. Drawing on his own observations as well as Beltrami's correspondence, he describes the villa, the general atmosphere Beltrami would have encountered, and Beltrami's difficulty in making his home in Germany (and his continuing difficulties even after he returned to Italy).

Mai per., 6 N.

"Viaggiatori italiani nelle Americhe." Il Veltro: Rassegna di Vita Italiana a. 36:1-2 (gen/apr 1992).

Whole issue devoted to Italian exploration in the Americas, with mention of Beltrami especially in the first article, "Dal viaggiatore all'emigrante: italiani nelle americhe, 1492-1876," which seeks to consider Beltrami and like explorers as "anticipatory emigrants" in search of new ways of life in the new world. The issue as a whole gives a useful contextualization of Italian exploration in the new world.

Mai per., Sala 23 96 O.

Cattaneo, Barbara. " 'Le Mexique' di Giacomo Costantino Beltrami." Atti dell'Ateneo di scienza, lettere ed arti di Bergamo 54 (1993): 337-369.

In this extremely enlightening article, Cattaneo presents a condensed version of her tesi di laurea on Beltrami's Le Mexique. She begins by bemoaning how oft overlooked this work is, and how scholars should look at it in conjunction with his previous works as an exploration not of geografic and naturalist themes, but rather socio-political ones. Cattaneo uses a diverse group of elements, from structural examinations to an analysis of the socio-political climate of Beltrami's world, to demonstrate the uniquenes of Beltrami's life and interests. Discusses, among other things: the tumultuous relationship between Beltrami and his London printer, Henry Colburn, which in part led to his decision to publish in France; the scandal resulting from those readers of his previous works who did not appreciate his lack of scientific method in his geographical finds; how his structural choice of an epistolary form affected the reception of his works; the precarious balance Beltrami attempts to strike between scientific expository writing and artistic or poetic passages; his modification of Le Mexique to appeal to a Parisian audience; his personal relationship to political events in Mexico and France at the time; his relationship to prominent French journalists of the day, including Marc-Antoine Jullien, director of the Revue Encyclopèdique; the curious and seemingly contradictory dedications of Le Mexique "Aux Souverain" and "Aux Mexicains" and how these dedications might be read as Beltrami's intention to remain, in the eyes of the complicated political climate of the time, a moderate; and his troubles with clerical bodies intent on retaining their own political power. Contains a very useful chronology of events, and a helpful list of newspaper reviews of Le Mexique.

Mai per., 9 O.

Rho, Franco. "Costantino Beltrami alla scoperta, nel Nord America del 1823, della sorgente più settentrionale del Mississippi." La Rivista di Bergamo 5-6 (gennaio-marzo, 1996): 44-51.

Recounts Beltrami's adventures in America, positing that the restless bergamasco happened upon his subsequent discovery out of, among other things, boredom in waiting for the boat to Mexico. Contains numerous glossy color photos of the landscape, some of the existing images of Beltrami, his estate at Filottrano, and some personal effects.

Mai per., 1



Luchetti, Glauco [a cura di]. La mia flora Mexicana. Ancona: Litotip. Stella, 1998.

This work focuses on the hitherto basically unknown collection of dried flower specimens which Beltrami gathered on his Mexican travels, and which have been recently reorganized and cataloged by Luchetti after spending the last 150 years in the attic of his estate at Filottrano. This book presents, after a short introduction, color photographs of the first 54 of 100 total specimens, many of which were considered "new" species by Beltrami and his peers at the Societas Medico-Botanico Londinensis" (who in 1828 awarded Beltrami an honorary degree for his collecting activity). Also contains a map of Beltrami's travels. Autographed limited edition of this work, with only 500 copies printed.

G 3 6943
(inv. # 648354)



Reference Materials:

The following resources contain information on Beltrami in a reference format (e.g. encyclopedias and dictionaries), and though they lack in-depth investigations, they are a good starting point and an indispensible tool for those searching for contextualization of Beltrami, his origins, his era etc.
Reference Materials: Location  

D'Amat di S. Filippo, Pietro. "Biografia dei viaggiatori italiani e bibliografia delle loro opere." Studi bibliografici e biografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia. Roma: Tipografia Elzeviriana, 1875.

A tiny announcement on Beltrami (p. 258) which gives a list of his primary works and provides his name as "Giulio Cesare."

Sala 3 H, 10, 8 O.

Belotti, Bertolo. Storia di Bergamo e dei Bergamaschi. Milano: Ceschina, 1940. 3 vol.

[See the new editions below, 1959 and 1989, for annotations.]

3 locations:

Sala 21 I 2 8/1-3 [does not circulate]

Locar. 3 19/1-3 G 3 1766/1-3


Belotti, Bertolo. Storia di Bergamo e dei Bergamaschi. [a cura della Banco Popolare di Bergamo] Bergamo: Bolis, 1959. 7 vol.

[See also new edition below, 1989, for additional annotation.]

Belotti's work is indespensible for the study of Bergamascan culture and history, and as such, contains some information about Beltrami. Gives general information for the most part, but also adds a few interesting twists, including the theory that Beltrami's work anticipates Gioberti's call for Italian nationhood, Primato degli Italiani, a thought later taken up by Zanetti. The new edition (1989; see below) is virtually identical, except that this version contains two things omitted from the later. First is a reproduction of A. Maironi Da Ponte's painting of Beltrami (in stark comparison to Scuri's rendering) from the Raccolta G. Caprotti. Second is an interesting footnote regarding the 1924 engraved marble plaque dedicated to Beltrami that adorns one of the walls in Angelo Mai's main foyer.

Cons. BG. 945.24 BELOB 2/1-7 V.

Belotti, Bertolo. Storia di Bergamo e dei Bergamaschi. Bergamo: Bolis, 1989. 9 vol. New edition.

In this newest edition of Belotti's work, three volumes contain information on Beltrami; nearly all of it is identical to the earlier vesions. Contains short biographical notes, mentions of the Caffi collection, and best of all, the best large, full-color reproduction of Scuri's painting available.

2 locations:

Cons. BG. 945.24 BELOB 1/1-9

G . 4 1622/1-2 [does not circulate]


Belotti, Bortolo. "Giacomo Costantino Beltrami." Gli eccelenti bergamaschi. Bergamo: Conti, 1956. Vol. 1, pp. 133-144.

A thorough biography condensed into a small amount of space, Belotti draws on the usual biografic resources (Masi, Moroni, Pennesi, Rosa) to recount Beltrami's life. Particluarly helpful at presenting the later events of his life, including the poor reaction to his works in the U.S.

2 locations:

Pacchiani 1628/1-3

Sala Cons. BG 920 BELOB 1-3



Locatelli-Milesi, Sereno. Bergamo Vecchia e nuova e la bergamasca. Bergamo: Edizione Orobiche, 1945.

Small profile of Beltrami in this guide which provides walking itineraries of Bergamo and environs and includes, in reference to Beltrami, a section on the Caffi museo.

Sala 3 M. 2 29 O.

Masi Costanzi, E. "Beltrami, G.C." Enciclopedia Italiana vol VI. 1932. 582.

A general, three-column biography and list of works.

New Catalog room O.

Roncalli, Emanuele. "Giacomo Costantino Beltrami." I Grandi di Bergamo. Vol. 2. Bergamo: Burgo Editore, 1993. 123-138.

A biography which heavily favors his life as an explorer and reproduces a number of photos of Native American objects, the Scuri painting and a map.

Sala Cons. BG 920 Ronce 1-2 O.

Zavatti, S. Dizionario delle esplorazioni e delle scoperte geografiche. Milano, 1967.

Alphabetical and encyclopedic listing of explorers.

Antisala H, 1, 146 N.

Zavatti, S. Uomini verso l'ignoto. Ancona: G. Bagaloni, 1979.

Alphabetical and encyclopedic listing of explorers; largely a newer edition of the Dizionario above.

G. 2 9227
(inv.# 616818)


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Civica Biblioteca di Bergamo, "Angelo Mai"

Updated: 7.25.2000
Email: info@bibliotecamai.org.